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Biphasic Spikes – What Do They Indicate?

One of two curves—one with a single peak, or “monophasic,” and the other with two subsequent peaks, or “biphasic”—can be seen in your glucose pattern following a high-sugar or high-carbohydrate meal. A simple sugar called glucose builds up in the human system, resulting in increased blood sugar. It occurs in people with diabetes due to the body’s improper use of glucose. The majority of the food eaten is converted to glucose. The body requires glucose as it is the primary fuel for muscles, organs, and the brain to function correctly. However, glucose must first reach the cells in order for them to use it. 

The pancreas secretes the hormone insulin, which causes cells to become unlocked and allow glucose to enter. Without insulin, the glucose keeps circling in the bloodstream, concentrating over time and having nowhere to go. Blood glucose (blood sugar) levels increase as glucose builds up in your bloodstream.

Organs, nerves, and blood arteries are harmed over time by this. People with diabetes have blood sugar rises because they can’t adequately use insulin. Untreated high blood sugar can be harmful and result in ketoacidosis, a deadly illness that affects people with diabetes. Serious diabetic consequences, including heart disease, blindness, neuropathy, and kidney failure, are more likely to occur when blood sugar levels are consistently high. 

A wearable device, BIOS, attaches a sensor that constantly monitors the real-time blood glucose levels in one’s body during a meal or restive state. The spikes showcase the foods that lead to blood glucose spikes. HealthifyPro 2.0 works as a boon to people with diabetes who continuously need to monitor food and activity levels and ensure minimal spikes. In an ideal state, the curve should be flat. 

Monophasic and Biphasic Spikes

A monophasic glucose curve displays a single glucose peak followed by a steady decline. In contrast, a biphasic curve indicates a peak in glucose levels between 30 and 60 minutes after a meal, followed by a drop and then a spike in glucose between 90 and 120 minutes later.

A study found that obese people with monophasic curves following a glucose test had worse insulin sensitivity and pancreatic beta-function than people with biphasic curves. A glucose tolerance test examines subjects’ blood glucose levels after taking 75 g of glucose. Additionally, type 2 diabetes is more likely to affect monophasic people.

In a different research, two groups—one with normal glucose tolerance and the other with impaired glucose tolerance—were studied to evaluate the form of the glucose curve during an oral glucose tolerance test. Following that, the people were divided into monophasic or biphasic groups. In addition to having a higher proportion of normal glucose tolerance, people who showed a biphasic curve were also younger and had lower BMIs, plasma glucose levels, and haemoglobin A1c levels. In comparison to the monophasic group, they also showed higher insulin sensitivity.

Effect of Biphasic Spike

In the biphasic group, the pancreas secretes and releases insulin faster, allowing it to absorb more blood sugar. It occurs right after the consumption of glucose and lasts for a shorter period during the first phase. The duration is extended in the second phase. 

Better insulin production and increased insulin sensitivity in those who display the biphasic curve result in early glucose control in the first phase, followed by a rise in glucose. The two peaks you can see in the curve result from this. The rate at which the stomach empties its contents and certain hormone-related elements might also be contributing factors.

Better health outcomes are associated with biphasic curves that develop after meals high in carbohydrates. They are also linked to greater insulin sensitivity, reduced rates of disturbed glucose tolerance, lower fasting insulin, lower BMI, and lower glucose intolerance levels. However, it is essential to remember that you do not need to eat in a certain way to produce the biphasic reaction. The ideal response and pattern that should appear on the graph after eating are steady and devoid of spikes. In terms of health, a constant slope is preferable to a spike.

Causes of Blood Sugar Spikes

The following foods and drinks can cause blood glucose levels to rise.

Simple Carbohydrates

The most prevalent issue is carbohydrates. Simple carbs show a faster release of sugar as compared to complex carbs. So pick complex carbohydrates like whole-wheat bread and cereal, beans, whole-wheat pasta, brown rice, unprocessed grains like barley or quinoa, fruit, yoghurt, and vegetables. If you use insulin, discuss your insulin-to-carb ratio with your doctor.

Fruits

If you have diabetes, you should pick your fruits very carefully. You must take fruits with high GI with precaution. However, fresh fruit is always preferable to juice, jams, and jellies.

Fattening foods

 The “pizza effect” is a result of eating fatty meals. Using pizza as an example, the fat and protein will not immediately impact your blood sugar levels, but the carbs in the crust and sauce will.

Electrolytic beverages, sweet coffee drinks, juice, and soda

Take note of the carbohydrates in your drinks because they impact your blood sugar levels.

Alcohol

Alcohol instantly increases blood sugar, especially when combined with juice or soda. However, some hours later, it may also result in low blood sugar.

Diabetes

For diabetic patients, blood sugar spikes can be due to the following reasons:

The insulin dosage is insufficient.The insulin lasts shorter than expected.The insulin is expired.You aren’t following the prescribed nutritional plan.You aren’t taking the oral diabetes medication.There is a lack of regular physical activity.

The HealthifyMe Note

An individual whose blood glucose graph shows frequent spikes and crashes throughout the day, notably high glucose peaks after eating, is at risk of various health complications. The graph’s ideal blood glucose curve would be one with fewer crashes and spikes, maintained at a healthy goal, and be closer to being flat. 

Symptoms of Blood Sugar Spikes

You can keep your diabetes under control by being aware of the signs of hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Some people with diabetes experience signs of elevated blood sugar right away. In contrast, others go undetected for years because their symptoms are minor or ambiguous.

When your blood sugar rises beyond 250 mg/dL, you often start experiencing the symptoms of hyperglycemia. As time passes without treatment, symptoms worsen.

The following are signs of a blood sugar spike:

Weariness.Frequent urination.Blurry vision.Headaches.Increased thirst.

Treatment of Blood Sugar Spikes

It’s critical to understand the signs of hyperglycemia. Perform a finger stick to check your blood sugar level if you think you may have high blood sugar. After eating, especially if you’ve had a lot of starchy carbs, you should exercise and drink water to reduce your blood sugar. You may also administer insulin intravenously, but you must utilise this technique carefully while following your doctor’s advice on your dose. Insulin misuse may result in hypoglycemia (low blood sugar).

In cases where high blood sugar levels are left untreated for an extended period, glucose will accumulate in the blood and deplete your cells of energy. As a result, fat will be used as fuel by your cells. Ketones are a byproduct created when your cells use fat as fuel rather than glucose.

People with Diabetes

Diabetes patients are susceptible to diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA), a hazardous illness when the blood becomes too acidic. Ketone levels aren’t kept in check and can quickly climb to deadly levels in people with diabetes due to poorly functioning insulin. DKA may result in mortality or a diabetic coma. Ketoacidosis is a medical emergency that deserves immediate attention. If you have fruity breath or perspiration, sickness, very dry mouth, difficulty breathing, weakness, disorientation, and abdominal pain, get immediate medical help.

People without Diabetes

Ketosis, or elevated blood ketone levels, can be tolerated by people without diabetes. Because their systems can still use glucose and insulin effectively, they do not go on to develop ketoacidosis. Instead, ketone levels in the body are kept steady by insulin that is working properly.

Prevention of Blood Sugar Spikes

Avoid Simple Carbohydrates

Blood sugar levels rise as a result of carbohydrates.  They are transformed into simple sugars when you ingest them making the bloodstream full of glucose. Your pancreas secretes insulin when your blood sugar levels increase, which causes your cells to begin absorbing sugar from the blood. Your blood sugar levels decline as a result of this. 

As per research, a low-carb diet can help reduce blood sugar spikes. Additionally, low-carb diets can help with weight reduction, which helps lessen blood sugar rises. There are several techniques to reduce your carb intake, including carb counting.

Exercise

Exercise reduces blood sugar spikes by making your cells more responsive to the hormone insulin. Additionally, muscle cells absorb sugar from the blood during exercise, which lowers blood sugar levels. Exercise of any intensity, whether vigorous or moderate, has been shown to lessen blood sugar peaks. According to studies, exercising before breakfast has a significant impact on lowering blood sugar levels. 

Increase Fibre Intake

The components of plant foods that your body cannot digest make up the fibre, which is a kind of carbohydrate. Soluble and insoluble fibre are the two main categories of fibre. Soluble fibre, in particular, can aid in reducing blood sugar spikes. That is because it becomes a gel-like material when dissolved in water, slowing down the absorption of carbohydrates in the stomach. Instead of a surge, this causes the blood sugar to increase and decrease steadily. Additionally, fibre might help you feel full and reduce your appetite and food consumption.

Increase Water Intake

A blood sugar spike might be a result of low water intake. Your body creates the hormone vasopressin when you are dehydrated. As a result, your kidneys are encouraged to retain fluid, and the body fails to excrete extra sugar through your urine. More sugar is also released into the blood by your liver as a result of it. Drink water instead of sugary drinks or sodas since they will cause blood sugar to increase.

Avoid Stress

Numerous health problems, including headaches, high blood pressure, and anxiety, can be brought on by stress. Stress also impacts blood sugar levels. Your body releases certain hormones when your stress level rises. The result is a release of sugary stored energy (glycogen) for the fight-or-flight reaction into your circulation. Actively managing stress improves blood sugar. 

Sleep Better

Poor blood sugar control can also result from too little and too much sleep. Poor sleep for even one or two nights might impact your blood sugar levels. Sleeping too little increases insulin resistance and blood sugar levels. Quality of sleep is just as significant as quantity. As per research, NREM, the deepest sleep stage, was revealed to be crucial for regulating blood sugar.

Avoid Alcohol

The sugar in alcoholic beverages will cause blood sugar to increase. However, most alcoholic beverages also don’t offer much in the way of nourishment. They are essentially empty calories. . In addition, chronic excessive drinking might reduce insulin’s efficiency, which results in high blood sugar and eventually type-2 diabetes.

Summary

A monophasic glucose spike is a blood sugar trend with a single peak that appears following a diet high in carbohydrates. A biphasic curve is characterised by a peak that appears 30 to 60 minutes after a meal, a subsequent decline, and a subsequent increase 90 to 120 minutes later. Lower levels of adiponectin, pancreatic polypeptide, HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, and insulin sensitivity may result from a monophasic rise. A good spike that has two stages is called a biphasic spike. The optimum curve, with the fewest spikes and crashes during the day, is closest to being flat. However, the aim should be to have no spikes at all.

Untreated high blood sugar can be harmful and result in ketoacidosis, a deadly illness that affects people with diabetes. Serious diabetic consequences, including heart disease, blindness, neuropathy, and kidney failure, are more likely to occur when blood sugar levels are consistently high. You may prevent blood sugar rises by making easy dietary modifications, such as adhering to a low-carb, high-fibre diet and avoiding added sweets and processed carbohydrates. Beyond aiding in blood sugar regulation, frequent exercise, maintaining a healthy weight, and drinking lots of water can improve your health. Making these straightforward dietary and lifestyle adjustments is an intelligent strategy to reduce your type 2 diabetes or insulin resistance risk.

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